This vignette covers the basics of analyzing the topologies of Ig lineage
trees built using
buildPhylipLineage, using some built-in alakazam functions
that focus on quantifying annotation relationships within lineages.
A small set of annotated example trees are included in the
The trees are
igraph objects with the following tree annotations (graph attributes):
clone: An identifier for the clonal group. These entries correspond to the
CLONEcolumn in the
ExampleDbdata.frame from which the trees were generated.
v_gene: IGHV gene name.
j_gene: IGHJ gene name.
junc_len: Length of the junction region (nucleotides).
And the following node annotations (vertex attributes):
SAMPLE: Time point in relation to influenza vaccination.
ISOTYPE: The isotype(s) assigned to the sequence. Multiple isotypes are delimited by comma, and reflect identical V(D)J sequences observed with more than one isotype.
DUPCOUNT: The copy number (duplicate count), which indicates the total number of reads with the same V(D)J sequence.
# Load required packages library(alakazam) library(igraph) library(dplyr) # Load example trees data(ExampleTrees) # Select one tree for example purposes graph <- ExampleTrees[] # And add some annotation complexity to the tree V(graph)$SAMPLE[c(2, 7)] <- "-1h" V(graph)$ISOTYPE[c(2, 7)] <- "IgM" # Make a list of example trees excluding multi-isotype trees graph_list <- ExampleTrees[sapply(ExampleTrees, function(x) !any(grepl(",", V(x)$ISOTYPE)))]
Plotting annotations on a tree¶
There are many options for configuring how an igrpah object is plotted which are helpful for visualing annotation topologies. Below is an extensive example of how to plot a tree by configuring the colors, labels, shapes and sizes of different visual elements according to annotations embedded in the graph.
# Set node colors V(graph)$color[V(graph)$SAMPLE == "-1h"] <- "seagreen" V(graph)$color[V(graph)$SAMPLE == "+7d"] <- "steelblue" V(graph)$color[V(graph)$name == "Germline"] <- "black" V(graph)$color[grepl("Inferred", V(graph)$name)] <- "white" # Set node labels V(graph)$label <- paste(V(graph)$SAMPLE, V(graph)$ISOTYPE, sep=", ") V(graph)$label[V(graph)$name == "Germline"] <- "" V(graph)$label[grepl("Inferred", V(graph)$name)] <- "" # Set node shapes V(graph)$shape <- "crectangle" V(graph)$shape[V(graph)$name == "Germline"] <- "circle" V(graph)$shape[grepl("Inferred", V(graph)$name)] <- "circle" # Set node sizes V(graph)$size <- 60 V(graph)$size[V(graph)$name == "Germline"] <- 30 V(graph)$size[grepl("Inferred", V(graph)$name)] <- 15 # Remove large default margins par(mar=c(0, 0, 0, 0) + 0.05) # Plot the example tree plot(graph, layout=layout_as_tree, vertex.frame.color="grey", vertex.label.color="black", edge.label.color="black", edge.arrow.mode=0) # Add legend legend("topleft", c("Germline", "Inferred", "-1h", "+7d"), fill=c("black", "white", "seagreen", "steelblue"), cex=0.75)
Summarizing node properties¶
Various annotation dependent node statistics can be calculated using the
calculates distances from the root (germline) to child nodes, whereas
summarizeSubtrees calculates paths and subtree statistics
from child nodes.
Calculating distance from the germline¶
To determine the shortest path from the germline sequence to any node,
getPathLengths, which returns the distance both as the number
of “hops” (
STEPS) and the number of mutational events (
# Consider all nodes getPathLengths(graph, root="Germline")
## NAME STEPS DISTANCE ## 1 Inferred1 1 20 ## 2 GN5SHBT04CW57C 2 26 ## 3 Inferred2 3 28 ## 4 GN5SHBT08I7RKL 4 29 ## 5 GN5SHBT04CAVIG 5 30 ## 6 Germline 0 0 ## 7 GN5SHBT01D6X0W 2 22 ## 8 GN5SHBT06H7TQD 6 31 ## 9 GN5SHBT05HEG2J 4 33
STEPS counted in the above example include traversal of inferred
intermediates. If you want to exclude such nodes, and consider only nodes
associated with observed sequences, you can specify an annotation field and
value that will be excluded from the number of steps. In the example below
we are excluding
NA values in the
# Exclude nodes without an isotype annotation from step count getPathLengths(graph, root="Germline", field="ISOTYPE", exclude=NA)
## NAME STEPS DISTANCE ## 1 Inferred1 0 20 ## 2 GN5SHBT04CW57C 1 26 ## 3 Inferred2 1 28 ## 4 GN5SHBT08I7RKL 2 29 ## 5 GN5SHBT04CAVIG 3 30 ## 6 Germline 0 0 ## 7 GN5SHBT01D6X0W 1 22 ## 8 GN5SHBT06H7TQD 4 31 ## 9 GN5SHBT05HEG2J 2 33
STEPS has changed with respect to the previous example, but
DISTANCE remains the same.
Calculating subtree properties¶
summarizeSubtrees function returns a table of each node with the
following properties for each node:
NAME: The node identifier.
PARENT: The identifier of the node’s parent.
OUTDEGREE: The number of edges leading from the node.
SIZE: The total number of nodes within the subtree rooted at the node.
DEPTH: The depth of the subtree that is rooted at the node.
PATHLENGTH: The maximum path length beneath the node.
OUTDEGREEnormalized by the total number of edges.
SIZEnormalized by the total tree size.
DEPTHnormalized by the total tree depth.
PATHLENGTHnormalized by the longest path.
fields=c("SAMPLE", "ISOTYPE") argument in the example below simply
defines which annotations we wish to retain in the output. This argument
has no effect on the results, in constast to the behavior of
# Summarize tree df <- summarizeSubtrees(graph, fields=c("SAMPLE", "ISOTYPE"), root="Germline") print(df[1:4])
## NAME SAMPLE ISOTYPE PARENT ## 1 Inferred1 <NA> <NA> Germline ## 2 GN5SHBT04CW57C -1h IgM Inferred1 ## 3 Inferred2 <NA> <NA> GN5SHBT04CW57C ## 4 GN5SHBT08I7RKL +7d IgG Inferred2 ## 5 GN5SHBT04CAVIG +7d IgG GN5SHBT08I7RKL ## 6 Germline <NA> <NA> <NA> ## 7 GN5SHBT01D6X0W -1h IgM Inferred1 ## 8 GN5SHBT06H7TQD +7d IgG GN5SHBT04CAVIG ## 9 GN5SHBT05HEG2J +7d IgG Inferred2
## NAME OUTDEGREE SIZE DEPTH PATHLENGTH ## 1 Inferred1 2 8 6 13 ## 2 GN5SHBT04CW57C 1 6 5 7 ## 3 Inferred2 2 5 4 5 ## 4 GN5SHBT08I7RKL 1 3 3 2 ## 5 GN5SHBT04CAVIG 1 2 2 1 ## 6 Germline 1 9 7 33 ## 7 GN5SHBT01D6X0W 0 1 1 0 ## 8 GN5SHBT06H7TQD 0 1 1 0 ## 9 GN5SHBT05HEG2J 0 1 1 0
## NAME OUTDEGREE_NORM SIZE_NORM DEPTH_NORM PATHLENGTH_NORM ## 1 Inferred1 0.250 0.8888889 0.8571429 0.39393939 ## 2 GN5SHBT04CW57C 0.125 0.6666667 0.7142857 0.21212121 ## 3 Inferred2 0.250 0.5555556 0.5714286 0.15151515 ## 4 GN5SHBT08I7RKL 0.125 0.3333333 0.4285714 0.06060606 ## 5 GN5SHBT04CAVIG 0.125 0.2222222 0.2857143 0.03030303 ## 6 Germline 0.125 1.0000000 1.0000000 1.00000000 ## 7 GN5SHBT01D6X0W 0.000 0.1111111 0.1428571 0.00000000 ## 8 GN5SHBT06H7TQD 0.000 0.1111111 0.1428571 0.00000000 ## 9 GN5SHBT05HEG2J 0.000 0.1111111 0.1428571 0.00000000
Distributions of normalized subtree statistics for a population of trees
can be plotted using the
plotSubtrees function. In the example below,
we have specified
silent=TRUE which causes
plotSubtrees to return the
ggplot object without rendering the plot. The ggplot object are then
plotting using the
gridPlot function which places each individual plot in
a separate panel of the same figure.
# Set sample colors sample_colors <- c("-1h"="seagreen", "+7d"="steelblue") # Box plots of node outdegree by sample p1 <- plotSubtrees(graph_list, "SAMPLE", "outdegree", colors=sample_colors, main_title="Node outdegree", legend_title="Time", style="box", silent=TRUE) # Box plots of subtree size by sample p2 <- plotSubtrees(graph_list, "SAMPLE", "size", colors=sample_colors, main_title="Subtree size", legend_title="Time", style="box", silent=TRUE) # Violin plots of subtree path length by isotype p3 <- plotSubtrees(graph_list, "ISOTYPE", "pathlength", colors=IG_COLORS, main_title="Subtree path length", legend_title="Isotype", style="violin", silent=TRUE) # Violin plots of subtree depth by isotype p4 <- plotSubtrees(graph_list, "ISOTYPE", "depth", colors=IG_COLORS, main_title="Subtree depth", legend_title="Isotype", style="violin", silent=TRUE) # Plot in a 2x2 grid gridPlot(p1, p2, p3, p4, ncol=2)
Counting and testing node annotation relationships¶
Given a set of annotated trees, you can determine the abundance of specific parent-child
relationships within individual trees using the
tableEdges function and the
signficance of these relationships in population of trees using the
function. Annotation relationships over edges can be calculated as direct or indirect relationships, where a direct relationship is a parent-child pair and an indirect
relationship is a decent relationship that travels through another node (or nodes) first.
Tabulating edges for a single tree¶
Tabulating all directparent-child annotation relationships in the tree by isotype annotation can be performed like so:
# Count direct edges between isotypes tableEdges(graph, "ISOTYPE")
## # A tibble: 5 x 3 ## # Groups: PARENT  ## PARENT CHILD COUNT ## <chr> <chr> <int> ## 1 <NA> <NA> 1 ## 2 <NA> IgG 2 ## 3 <NA> IgM 2 ## 4 IgG IgG 2 ## 5 IgM <NA> 1
The above output is cluttered with the
NA annotations from the germline and
inferred nodes. We can perform the same direct tabulation, but exclude any nodes
annotated with either
NA for isotype using the
# Direct edges excluding germline and inferred nodes tableEdges(graph, "ISOTYPE", exclude=c("Germline", NA))
## # A tibble: 1 x 3 ## # Groups: PARENT  ## PARENT CHILD COUNT ## <chr> <chr> <int> ## 1 IgG IgG 2
As there are inferred nodes in the tree, we might want to consider indirect
parent-child relationships that traverse through inferred nodes. This is accomplished
using the same arguments as above, but with the addition of the
which will skip over the excluded nodes when tabulating annotation pairs:
# Count indirect edges walking through germline and inferred nodes tableEdges(graph, "ISOTYPE", indirect=TRUE, exclude=c("Germline", NA))
## # A tibble: 2 x 3 ## # Groups: PARENT  ## PARENT CHILD COUNT ## <chr> <chr> <int> ## 1 IgG IgG 2 ## 2 IgM IgG 2
Significance testing of edges in a population of trees¶
Given a population of trees, as a list of annotated igraph objects, you
can determine if there is enrichment for specific annotation pairs using the
testEdges function. This has the same options as
tableEdges, except that
c("Germline", NA) are excluded by default.
testEdges performs a
permutation test to generated a null distribution, excluding permutation of
of any annotations specified to the
exclude argument (these annotation remain
fix in the tree). P-values output by
testEdges are one-sided tests that the
annotation pair is observed more often than expected.
# Test isotype relationships edge_test <- testEdges(graph_list, "ISOTYPE", nperm=20) # Print p-value table print(edge_test)
## PARENT CHILD COUNT EXPECTED PVALUE ## 1 IgA IgA 36 34.850000 0.1000000 ## 2 IgA IgG 2 3.066667 0.6000000 ## 3 IgG IgA 1 2.411765 0.8235294 ## 4 IgG IgG 99 98.800000 0.4000000
# Plot null distributions for each annotation pair plotEdgeTest(edge_test, color="steelblue", main_title="Isotype Edges", style="hist")
Counting and testing MRCA annotations¶
The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of an Ig lineage we define herein
as the most ancestral observed, or inferred, sequences in the lineage tree.
Meaning, the node that is most proximal, by some measure, to the germline (root)
testMRCA functions provide extraction and significance
testing of MRCA sequences by annotation value, respectively.
Extracting MRCAs from a tree¶
Extracting the MRCA from a tree is accomplished using the
The germline distance criteria are as described above for
and can be either node hops or mutational events, with or without exclusion
of nodes with specific annotations. To simply extract the annotations for the
node(s) immediately below the germline, you can use the
without any node exclusion:
# Use unweighted path length and do not exclude any nodes mrca_df <- getMRCA(graph, path="steps", root="Germline") # Print subset of the annotation data.frame print(mrca_df[c("NAME", "SAMPLE", "ISOTYPE", "STEPS", "DISTANCE")])
## NAME SAMPLE ISOTYPE STEPS DISTANCE ## Inferred1 Inferred1 <NA> <NA> 1 20
To use mutational distance and consider only observed (ie, non-germline and
non-inferred) nodes, we specify the exclusion field (
exclusion value within that field (
# Exclude nodes without an isotype annotation and use weighted path length mrca_df <- getMRCA(graph, path="distance", root="Germline", field="ISOTYPE", exclude=NA) # Print excluding sequence, label, color, shape and size annotations print(mrca_df[c("NAME", "SAMPLE", "ISOTYPE", "STEPS", "DISTANCE")])
## NAME SAMPLE ISOTYPE STEPS DISTANCE ## GN5SHBT01D6X0W GN5SHBT01D6X0W -1h IgM 1 22
Significance testing of MRCA annotations¶
testEdges, the function
testMRCA will perform a permutation
test to determine the significance of an annotation appearing at the MRCA
over a population of trees. P-values output by
testMRCA are one-sided tests
that the annotation is observed more often than expected in the MRCA position.
# Test isotype MRCA annotations mrca_test <- testMRCA(graph_list, "ISOTYPE", nperm=20)
# Print p-value table print(mrca_test)
## ANNOTATION COUNT EXPECTED PVALUE ## 1 IgA 12 11.45 0.00 ## 2 IgG 31 31.55 0.55
# Plot null distributions for each annotation plotMRCATest(mrca_test, color="steelblue", main_title="Isotype MRCA", style="hist")